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Scientific Limitations of Animal Models

Animal studies can neither confirm nor refute hypotheses about human physiology or pathology; human clinical investigation is the only way such hypotheses can be tested. At best, animal experiments can suggest new hypotheses that might be relevant to humans. However, there are countless other, far superior ways to derive new hypotheses. Read more at MRMC>>

Nonanimal Methods

Epidemiology (Human Population Studies)

conversationMedical research has always sought to identify the underlying causes of human disease in order to develop effective preventive and therapeutic measures. In contrast to artificial animal model conditions that generally differ in causes and mechanisms from human conditions, human population studies have been critically important to our understanding of risk and potential treatments for various diseases. Read more at MRMC >>

Studies on Patients

doctor with patientFrom cardiology to the Heimlich maneuver, the main source of medical knowledge has always been the direct study of human disease by closely monitoring human patients. Read more at MRMC >>

Autopsies and Biopsies

microscopeAutopsies have been crucial to our current understanding of many diseases including, but not limited to, heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Although the usefulness of autopsies is generally limited to the disease's lethal stage, biopsies can provide information about other disease stages. Read more at MRMC >>

Post-Marketing Surveillance

doctor with patientThanks to advances in computer techniques, it is now possible to keep detailed and comprehensive records of adverse effects associated with pharmaceutical and other medical and surgical interventions. A central database with such information, derived from post-marketing surveillance, enables rapid identification of dangerous drugs and products. These techniques also allow for the detection of unexpected, beneficial effects of therapeutic interventions. Read more at MRMC >>

Other Nonanimal Methods

labOther nonanimal methods include in vitro cell and tissue cultures, microfluidic circuits, computer modeling, and microdosing. Read more MRMC >>


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Contemporary Animal Experimentation

Scientific Limitations of Animal Models

Nonanimal Methods